面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

——中国科学院办院方针

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US issues first passport with 'X' gender******

The United States on Wednesday announced its first passport with "X" for gender, a landmark step for people outside the binary male or female categories.

The State Department said it had issued a first passport with "X" for gender and would make the option routinely available by early 2022 both for passports and birth certificates of Americans abroad.

"I want to reiterate, on the occasion of this passport issuance, the Department of State's commitment to promoting the freedom, dignity and equality of all people – including LGBTQI+ persons," State Department spokesman Ned Price said in a statement.

Secretary of State Antony Blinken had promised to address the issue in June but said that there were technological hurdles that needed to be addressed.

Under Blinken, the State Department has also allowed US passport holders to select their gender on passports.

Previously, Americans required medical certification if they sought to mark a gender on their passports different than on their birth certificates or other documents.

The Human Rights Campaign, a leading advocacy group for LGBTQ rights, called the new passport policy "historic."

The move "will mitigate the risk of discrimination, harassment and violence faced by millions of non-binary, intersex and gender non-conforming Americans who travel abroad," said JoDee Winterhof, the group's senior vice president of policy and political affairs.

"The United States must encourage other governments around the world to follow suit in adopting inclusive policies," she said.

At least 11 other countries already have an "X" or "other" option for passports, according to the Employers Network for Equality and Inclusion, a London-based advocacy group.

The countries include Canada, Germany and Argentina as well as India, Nepal and Pakistan.

The State Department made the announcement on the week of Intersex Awareness Day as it vowed to support people who face discrimination over their gender identity.

US President Joe Biden has promised to make advocacy of LGBTQ rights a top priority of his administration.

Cultural China: Modern models of sci******

BEIJING, Nov. 14 (Xinhua) -- If there is a single theme throughout the history of science and technology in China, it is self-improvement.

An ancient Chinese saying from "Zhou Yi," or "The Book of Changes," written over 2,000 years ago, goes: One should never stop striving for self-improvement and hold the world with virtue.

Chinese scientists Gu Songfen and Wang Dazhong, who won China's top science award this year, are modern models of the self-taught man.

Born in 1930, Gu is an aircraft designer at the Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Ltd., the country's leading aircraft maker. At the age of 21, he joined China's aviation industry when it was in its infancy.

In 1956, China's first aircraft design office was established in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, and its first task was to develop the country's first homegrown jet aircraft. Gu was appointed head of the aerodynamics team.

Aerodynamics is the "soul" of aircraft design. The study of the way objects move through the air ensures an aircraft can fly efficiently and carry weapons as well as guaranteeing the stable and safe operation of the engine.

However, in the 1950s, China had no aviation experience, equipment or wind tunnels. Gu decided to teach himself.

After finding foreign texts at the library at Beihang University in Beijing, Gu headed to the capital, borrowed a bike and visited the library every day.

He read a range of books and transcribed all the information he could get his hands on.

Based on that information, Gu came up with an aerodynamic design system and on July 26, 1958, after two years of development, his team celebrated the maiden flight of China's first training jet.

Gu went on to work on the development of the J-8, the country's first supersonic jet fighter, which made its first test flight in 1969 but encountered serious vibration problems during subsequent flights.

To identify the cause of the vibrations, Gu volunteered to observe the aircraft in flight himself.

"We didn't have a camera, so it could only be done by a person," he said. He glued skeins of knitting wool to the J-8's rear fuselage and tail wing to observe their flow during flight.

To get a clear view of the way the wool was disturbed, he required two planes to fly just five meters apart, a great risk for him and his pilot. After several flights, he finally found and fixed the problem.

In 1980, he was in charge of the design of J-8-II, which was required to perform at a much higher level than previous aircraft. In four years, Gu's team achieved the maiden flight of the J-8-II, laying the cornerstone for China's supersonic aircraft design.

Gu's endless curiosity drove his spirit of lifelong learning. He continued his scientific inquiries, translated foreign books, talked with young scholars, and even learned Russian, Japanese and German late in life.

Like Gu, Wang Dazhong's life also reflects a belief in self-improvement. Born in 1935, Wang has dedicated himself to the research and development of advanced nuclear energy technologies.

An internationally reputed nuclear scientist, Wang is former president of China's top-ranking Tsinghua University, which also has self-improvement as its motto.

Over the past six decades, Wang has led his team in blazing a trail, turning China from a latecomer to a leader in advanced nuclear energy technologies.

Wang and his colleagues built from scratch China's first self-developed shielded test reactor at a mountain village in the outskirts of Beijing.

The average age of the design group was under 23, and no one had studied abroad or seen a real nuclear reactor. They started by building engineering models and made designs and calculations with hand-cranked machines.

China's first self-developed nuclear reactor was completed in 1964 after six years of development.

After Three Mile Island in the United States in 1979 and Chernobyl in the Soviet Union in 1986, Wang set his eyes on inherent safety and concentrated research into a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Although the development of nuclear energy was at a low ebb globally, Wang's resolution to continue in the field was unshaken.

In 1986, Wang and his team again started from scratch to develop a 10MW HTGR and it reached full-power operation in 2003. Its completion ushered in a new generation of nuclear energy systems that effectively eliminate the possibility of reactor core meltdown.

From there, Wang and his team spent years promoting the transition from experimental reactors to industrial-scale prototype reactors. Their achievements helped China independently master modular HTGR technology, and create a comprehensive development chain, from basic scientific research to commercial manufacture.

Likening scientific research to climbing mountains, Wang said the road to success is full of difficulties and risks and requires the ability to analyze problems, the courage to explore uncharted territory, and resilience in the face of failure.

The lives of these two scientists illustrate the ancient saying and echo the call by Chinese leaders to uphold the central role of innovation in China's modernization drive and to be self-reliant in science and technology as a strategic underpinning for national development. Enditem

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李克强会见巴西联邦共和国总统******  央视网消息(新闻联播):国务院总理李克强1日在人民大会堂会见巴西总统特梅尔。

  李克强表示,中巴都是发展中大国和重要新兴经济体,两国关系健康稳定发展。习近平主席同你成功会谈,有力推动中巴关系进一步发展。中方愿同巴方巩固政治互信,扩大务实合作,密切人文交流,在联合国、二十国集团、金砖国家等框架内密切协作,为两国关系不断注入新的动力。

  李克强指出,中国的市场是开放的,我们也欢迎巴西进口更多有竞争力的中国产品。希望双方努力优化贸易结构,以双向开放促进双边贸易平衡发展。共同落实好产能等广泛领域务实合作,更好实现互利共赢。

  特梅尔表示,巴中关系发展很好,在国际事务中开展了良好合作。巴方愿同中方深化全方位合作,扩大各领域交流,增进两国人民友谊。欢迎中国企业赴巴投资兴业。

将来几日陕西多雨雪天气 平均气温下降4℃上下******

  7日大白天,我国显著拥有凉意,西安市发生减温、吹风机气温。这轮强冷空气的“先遣部队”早已来临,大伙儿还记得添衣保暖。

  7日显著有吹风机的觉得,检测表明,我国有31个站风力超出10m/s,有3站发生了超过17.1m/s的风大,华山23.1m/s,华县18.8m/s,陕西潼关17.7m/s。但是雨或雪并没想像的如期而至,仅有宁强发生了1.8mm的毛毛雨,其他地域均以阴天为主导。

  西安气象局12月7日8时40分公布将来24钟头灾害性天气气象预报:预估今日大白天全省有3~4级偏车风,龙卷风6~7级,日平均温度降低4~5°C。关键降雨时间段为7日晚间到8日早上,全省绝大多数地区有毛毛雨或阵兩,秦岭高原地区山区地带有兩夹雪或小到中雪。

  将来几日我国多连阴雨。预估12月8日陕北北边阴天,陕北南边、陕西关中、陕南阴天转多云,陕北东部地区、铜川北边有零星小雪或雨夹雪,陕南一部分地区有零星小雨。我省日平均温度降低4℃上下。陕北中南部有4-5偏西风。12月9日陕北北边阴天转大晴天,陕北南边、陕西关中、陕南多云间大晴天。12月10日我省阴天,陕北大部分、陕西关中北边有雨夹雪或小雪,在其中陕北南边、陕西关中北边一部分地区有中到大雪,关东南部、陕南有毛毛雨或雨夹雪,秦岭山区地带一部分地区有降雪。

  西安地区12月8日毛毛雨或阵雨转多云,秦岭高原地区山区地带雨夹雪或小雪转多云。最高温度:6℃,最低温度:1℃,风频:偏车风,风速:2-3级。降雨几率:60%。9日多云,温度:-2~9℃;10日阴天转小到中雨,秦岭高原地区山区地带有中到大雪,温度:0~6℃。

  华商报小编 毛蜜娜 报道员 高红燕。


来源于:华商网-华商报。

编缉:方方正正。

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